—Gregory S. Parks and Matthew W. Hughey
On the evening of Wednesday, August 19, U.S. Senator Kamala Harris accepted the nomination to be Vice President on the Democratic ticket with former Vice President Joe Biden. During her speech, Senator Harris acknowledged her extended family, including her “beloved Alpha Kappa Alpha [Sorority and] Divine Nine … brothers and sisters.” For many who watched her speech, they probably wondered what “Alpha Kappa Alpha” and the “Divine Nine” were. And once they found out, if they cared to Google the terms, many probably wondered why—on such an occasion—a Vice Presidential candidate would acknowledge a group of fraternities and sororities.
Divine Nine organizations emerged at the turn of the Twentieth Century. A confluence of factors gave rise to them. But central among those factors was what Dr. Henry Arthur Callis, one of the Founders of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, noted. He said “Society offered us narrowly circumscribed opportunity and no security. Out of our need, our fraternity brought social purpose and social action.” That guiding philosophy played a part in the founding of each of the other eight organizations, most of which were established during The Nadir—the low-point of American race relations between Reconstruction and the early Twentieth Century—as described by noted historian, Dr. Rayford Logan. Fictive-kinship ties (brotherhood and sisterhood) rooted in a shared sense of ideals and values about personal excellence, mutual uplift, racial uplift, and institutional preservation were the cornerstones upon which these organizations were founded.
In 1906, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was founded at Cornell University. Two years later, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority was founded at Howard University. In 1911, Kappa Alpha Psi and Omega Psi Phi fraternities were founded at Indiana University and Howard University, respectively. In 1913, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority was founded at Howard University. A year later, in 1914, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity was founded, and then in 1920, Zeta Phi Beta Sorority was founded—both organizations at Howard University. In 1922, Sigma Gamma Rho was founded at Butler University. Over forty years later, in 1963, Iota Phi Theta Fraternity was founded at Morgan State University. Together, these organizations are part of the National Pan-Hellenic Council—affectionately called the “Divine Nine”—founded in 1930. Together, they are a loose federation of organizations with similar missions. However, there have been times in our nation’s history in which they have worked together in critical ways that portend something significant for the moment we now find ourselves in and even for Senator Harris’ candidacy.
In 1938, Alpha Kappa Alpha created the National Non-Partisan Lobby on Civil and Democratic Rights (“NPC”), later renamed the National Non-Partisan Council on Public Affairs. It was the first full-time Congressional lobby for a racial minority group’s civil rights. The NPC worked with an array of other civil rights organizations to advance their collective aims. In 1948, the NPC dissolved and was reconstituted as the American Council on Human Rights (“ACHR”)—a collaborative effort between each of the Divine Nine sororities as well as Alpha Phi Alpha and Kappa Alpha Psi fraternities. While still a civil rights lobbying organization, the ACHR also exerted pressure on the federal Executive Branch, funded the litigation of federal desegregation cases, financially supported Freedom Riders, and implemented a comprehensive initiative to educate black communities about their civil rights. It was this kind of work that inspired our writing of A Pledge with Purpose: Black Sororities and Fraternities and the Fight for Equality (NYU Press 2020).
While the ACHR disbanded in 1963, the racial uplift work of these organizations has continued. Dating back to the 1930s, philanthropy has been part of their uplift agenda. Not surprisingly, Alpha Kappa Alpha raised $1.2 million for historically Black colleges and universities in 24 hours during their inaugural Alpha Kappa Alpha Impact Day in 2018. Alpha Kappa Alpha proved that fundraising of that quantity was sustainable, raising $1 million in 24 hours again in 2019. Since Senator Harris’s nomination, there have already been fundraising efforts from Alpha Kappa Alpha and the Divine Nine members to donate to the Biden-Harris campaign the amount corresponding to the year each organization.
Though Alpha Kappa Alpha cannot endorse any political candidates as a tax-exempt organization, its direct impact stems from individual acts of support such as voting for the Biden-Harris ticket, communicating through an established informal network of contacts which reaches nation-wide, and personally fundraising by utilizing that network, as has already occurred during Senator Harris’s own presidential bid. In fact, her acknowledgment of these organizations during her acceptance speech served—knowingly or unknowingly—as an effective way to mobilize the political power of their college and alumni members. All we have to do is look back at the confirmation of Loretta Lynch as the first African American woman U.S. Attorney General and the sea of red (color of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority) behind her—literally and figuratively. This time the stakes are much higher and, we believe, the mobilization effort will be much greater.
Gregory S. Parks is Professor at Wake Forest University School of Law. Matthew W. Hughey is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Connecticut. They are the authors of The Wrongs of the Right: Language, Race, and the Republican Party in the Age of Obama and A Pledge with Purpose: Black Sororities and Fraternities and the Fight for Equality, both available from NYU Press.
Feature image by Gage Skidmore on Flickr
19 thoughts on “Kamala Harris and the Political Power of Black Sororities (and Fraternities)”
Fascinating article on the social and political aspects of our Divine Nine organizations. We have united in our call to action in support of one of our Divine Nine members Senator Kamala Harris. We now must unite in our collective strength of giving. Unity9 PAC was established twelve years ago to be the vehicle to address the financial support for campaigns and candidates from our organizations and candidates who championed issues that impact our communities. If our organizations would continue to indorse and support the Unity9 PAC as it was agreed to do our 2.5 million members could truly demonstrate the strength and relevance of our Divine Nine organizations.
We have to deal with our own issues first, before we assist the black community. Black Greek Orgs aren’t as respected as they used to be because we allow our pledges to beat or killed and yet all we do is payoff the families. “First of All,….Servants of all”? “WHAT” are we serving? Rather than WHO?
This is a great article and it will also enlighten the public a little bit about the divine 9.
As a member of one of the sororities in the Divine Nine, Ian pleased to stand with my brothers and sisters in fighting for change. Thanks for the article, for explaining that although as individual organizations when it comes to unity and justice we stand together as one.
Excellent read!!! This encapsulates the mutual uplift to which we all lend our strengths. Thank you.
Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Incorporated, Service to All Mankind is our most esteemed aim.
Now even more as part of the Divine Nine and the larger global community, we have a responsibility to use our right to vote to instill change and improve what sometimes appear as a serious decline in social justice. The article is timely and may be just what is needed to push forward in our collective missions to improve lives.
Whether or not the divine nine is as powerful as this article proclaims, we had better get things in order. People are using a movement to loot and steal van shoes and other items instead of trying to fight for equality while MAGA supporters mobilize its base. I am not looking to pat myself or anyone on the back at the moment. We have work that needs to be done and the article is great but what is being done to mobilize this large group of influential people into change for society?
Great article and a great reminder of the social justice platforms the Divine Nine have dedicated relentless effort toward.
Insightful information and a great overview of the Divine Nine and the social roles that black sorority and fraternal organizations play in uplifting equality.
Brother Parks, you’re just phenomical. Keep up your great work.
Very insightful article. A historical glimpse of how Fraternities and Sororities have impacted and changed things for the betterment of our future; a reminder of our respective pledge; and the importance of Howard University to our culture.
Informative and insightful presentation about the impact of the Divine Nine.
We are many parts, but only one body. If we confirm this in our home, work, day to day actions and with our population with a purpose the change is today
Informative article that provides a glimpse of the work done by the Divine Nine organizations.
Timely discussion and call to action for social organizations with origins rooted the the fulfillment of this time! Without direct endorsement the next progression is logical! Stand upon the shoulders of giants and cast your votes! FIETTS!
Thank you for doing your research very well done. Alpha Phi Alpha is first of all servants of all we shall transcend all. Motto for our Fraternity
Thank you for a perceptive and timely article on the Divine Nine organizations!
As always, this is a good article. I look forward to a discussion group to share insights from A Pledge With Purpose. We are fortunate to have your dedication to research and uplift.
Great article and insightful
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